THE LEGAL CONTEXT OF HUMAN DECISIONS: “EQUITY-ECONOMIES OF EDUCATION, HEALTH, HOUSING AND RACIAL JUSTICE DISPARITIES WITHIN THE AFRICAN-AMERICAN COMMUNITIES IN TULSA, OK.”

THE LEGAL CONTEXT OF HUMAN DECISIONS:

EQUITY-ECONOMIES OF EDUCATION, HEALTH, HOUSING AND RACIAL JUSTICE DISPARITIES WITHIN THE AFRICAN-AMERICAN COMMUNITIES IN TULSA, OK.

By Terence Morris, Founder, PACE TULSA AGS FOUNDATION. August 22, 2017 04:32 P.M.  Join PACE TULSA NOW…TEXT:  PACEPACTEAMUSA  TO:  22828 OR Register |  Lost your password?.  feed-icon-28x28

PACE TULSA AGS FOUNDATION often discusses topics about “Pedestrian Awareness Crosswalk Education as a curriculum intersecting public transportation policy and public safety in the United States. As with any public safety measure equity-economy of education, health, housing and racial justice disparities all play an integral part to the successful implementation or failure of a public transportation policy program.

Today, as I was searching through my file cabinet, I came across an old newspaper clipping, it was a report in the Tulsa World newspaper, written by Amanda Bland, A World Staff Writer, January 24, 2014, Ms. Blands report found that Tulsa, OK was ranking fifth highest in black homicides in African-American communities all across the United States, but specifically in Tulsa, OK.   

In June of 2017, The City of Tulsa, in partnership with the Community Service Council (CSC) published a public feedback session invitation online which stated that Tulsa, had been chosen to be one of the first cities in the country to create an Equality Indicators Tool under the guidance of the City University of New York (CUNY) Institute for State and Local Governance with funding from The Rockefeller Foundation.

CSC will work with the City of Tulsa to create the framework relative to Tulsa-specific disadvantaged populations and equality gaps. Framework relative to Tulsa-specific disadvantaged populations and equality gaps  which address Equality Indicators  can become realistic targets and specific interventions for reducing inequalities at the local and neighborhood level based on data. Through the process, The City of Tulsa, can also design policy solutions to address the greatest inequalities.

“This grant is another important national partnership for Tulsa as we work to ensure that no matter what area of town you live in, everyone has the same access to education and health needs that are vital to the quality of life of Tulsans,” Mayor G.T. Bynum said. “This grant will be an initial step in the use of data to address racial disparities that exist in Tulsa today.”

The primary focuses will be: education, health, housing and racial justice disparities. CSC has a long history as a leader in confronting challenges in the areas of focus and will be the primary organization to compile the data that will be used for solution-oriented approaches to make Tulsa a better place for all. 

WHAT IS RACIAL PREJUDICE?  To be racially prejudiced means to have an unfavorable or discriminatory attitude or belief towards someone else or another group of people primarily on the basis of skin color or ethnicity. 

According to the Community Service Council of Oklahoma, The City of Tulsa, intends to utilize the equality indicators data that will be collected and analyzed by CSC to demonstrate the commitment, transparency and accountability to citizens regarding the efforts underway to improve the conditions for underserved Tulsans. The City also hopes to establish a citywide baseline and dashboard to evaluate progress toward a more equitable community. For More Information contact: Emma Swepston
Division Director, Data & Information, 918.699.4237, eswepston@csctulsa.org.

THE FINANCIAL IMPACT OF HUMAN RESOURCE

CAN YOU DEFINE THE TYPES OF RESOURCES DISPLAYED?

(Framework relative to Tulsa-specific disadvantaged populations and equality gaps  which address Equality Indicators  can become realistic targets and specific interventions for reducing inequalities at the local and neighborhood level based on data.)

Systematic Review: A systematic review is a critical assessment and evaluation of all research studies that address a particular issue. Researchers use an organized method of locating, assembling, and evaluating a body of literature on a particular topic using a set of specific criteria. A systematic review typically includes a description of the findings of the collection of research studies. The systematic review may or may not include a quantitative pooling of data, called a meta-analysis. 

Nonsystematic Review: A non-systematic review is a critical assessment and evaluation of some but not all research studies that address a particular issue. Researchers do not use an organized method of locating, assembling, and evaluating a body of literature on a particular topic, possibly using a set of specific criteria. A non-systematic review typically includes a description of the findings of the collection of research studies. The non-systematic review may or may not include a quantitative pooling of data, called a meta-analysis. 

Randomized Control Trial: A randomized control trial is a controlled clinical trial that randomly (by chance) assigns participants to two or more groups. There are various methods to randomize study participants to their groups. 

Cohort Study: A cohort study is a clinical research study in which people who presently have a certain condition or receive a particular treatment are followed over time and compared with another group of people who are not affected by the condition. 

Cross-Sectional or Prevalence Study: A cross-sectional or prevalence study is a study that examines how often or how frequently a disease or condition occurs in a group of people. Prevalence is calculated by dividing the number of people who have the disease or condition by the total number of people in the group. 

Case-Control Study: A case-control study identifies all incident cases that develop the outcome of interest and compares their exposure history with the exposure history of controls sampled at random from everyone within the cohort who is still at risk for developing the outcome of interest. 

Expert Opinion: The opinion of someone widely recognized as a reliable source of knowledge, technique, or skill whose faculty for judging or deciding rightly, justly, or wisely is accorded authority and status by their peers or the public in a specific well-distinguished domain.

Pilot Study: A pilot study is a small-scale experiment or set of observations undertaken to decide how and whether to launch a full-scale project. 

Experimental Study: An experimental study is a type of evaluation that seeks to determine whether a program or intervention had the intended causal effect on program participants.

Practice-based example: A practice-based example is an original investigation undertaken in order to gain new knowledge partly by means of practice and the outcomes of that practice.

Peer-Reviewed: A publication that contains original articles that have been written by scientists and evaluated for technical and scientific quality and correctness by other experts in the same field. 

The above mentioned data resources can be utilized in the design process to bring forward conclusions and results that are targeted to those under-privileged groups in the Tulsa, OK community.

THE “STORY” THAT CONNECTS NUMBERS AND OUTCOMES

WHAT IS RACISM?  When racial prejudice is supported by institutions and laws, racism is present.

Tulsa-specific disadvantaged populations and equality gaps

“Of 219 homicide victims in the state in 2011, 74 were black, according to data cited in the study. Black Homicide Victimization in the United States is not an acceptable freedom to act as one wishes or thinks best.”- Amanda Bland, A World Staff Writer, Tulsa World, 1/24/2014

In 2017, the Office of Diseases Prevention and Health Promotion published a report for the range of personal, social, and environmental determinants which contribute to individual and population health.  They found that people with quality education alternatives, stable employment, safe homes and neighborhoods, and access to preventative services tend to be healthier throughout their lives.  The Social Determinants of Health that are critical to improving health are:  Home, School Workplace, Neighborhood, and Community.  These equality indicators present the relevant data that could define parameters of acceptability to non-acceptability.  African-Americans students on a path toward destruction can be identified by low attendance; low interest; failing grades disruptive behavior.  In high poverty environments middle and high school student with just one these early warning indicators can have only a 25% chance of graduating.  (Estimated cost to society based on Northeastern University Research.)  Northeastern University found that students who dropout are eight times more likely to end up in prison; three times more likely to be unemployed and earn roughly $100.00 million dollars less than high school graduates.  Furthermore, out-of-school, out-of-work youths will collectively cost Americans about $292,000.00 dollars each in increased social service costs and lost earnings and taxes over the course of their lifetimes.

ADDRESSING DAMAGED REPUTATIONS IN EQUITY-ECONOMIES OF EDUCATION, HEALTH, HOUSING AND RACIAL JUSTICE DISPARITIES WITHIN THE AFRICAN-AMERICAN COMMUNITIES IN TULSA, OK IS A VERY SENSITIVE CONVERSATION TRENDING ON-LINE AND IN SECRET CORRIDORS WITHIN THE TULSA, OKLAHOMA COMMUNITY AND NATIONALLY.

When I say Public-Policy Bunker Corridors, I mean literally in neighborhood bars; taverns; restaurants; social media chat rooms; on television as well as radio.  The disparities in affordable health and the conversation(s) about racial inequality are increasing in volume and with vivacity.  Partly because of the recent racist hate group Marches and protests that are occurring all around America.  Another reason for the growing concern is because of the Health Impact of Social Determinants.

Social and physical determinants affect a wide range of:

HEALTH, FUNCTIONING, AND QUALITY OF LIFE OUTCOMES.

  • Access to parks and safe sidewalks for walking is associated with physical activity in adults.2
  • Education is associated with:
    • Longer life expectancy
    • Improved health and quality of life
    • Health-promoting behaviors like getting regular physical activity, not smoking, and going for routine checkups and recommended screenings.3
  • Discrimination, stigma, or unfair treatment in the workplace can have a profound impact on health; discrimination can increase blood pressure, heart rate, and stress, as well as undermine self-esteem and self-efficacy.3
  • Family and community rejection, including bullying, of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth can have serious and long-term health impacts including depression, use of illegal drugs, and suicidal behavior.4
  • Places where people live and eat affect their diet. More than 23 million people, including 6.5 million children, live in “food deserts”—neighborhoods that lack access to stores where affordable, healthy food is readily available (such as full-service supermarkets and grocery stores).5

EMERGING ISSUES IN  HEALTH AND MENTAL DISORDERS

A health disparity is a health difference that is closely linked with social, economic, or environmental disadvantage.

  • Students graduating from high school 4 years after starting 9th grade (percent)
  • Persons with medical insurance (percent, under 65 years)
  • Persons with a usual primary care provider (percent)
  • Adults receiving colorectal cancer screening based on the most recent guidelines (age-adjusted, percent, 50–75 years)
  • Adults receiving colorectal cancer screening based on the most recent guidelines (age-adjusted, percent, 50–75 years)

https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/data-search/health-disparities-data/health-disparities-widget

What are the Leading Health Indicators (LHIs)?
Healthy People 2020 provides a comprehensive set of 10-year national goals and objectives for improving the health of all Americans. Healthy People 2020 is composed of more than 1,200 objectives across 42 Topic Areas. 

A smaller set of Healthy People 2020 objectives, called Leading Health Indicators, has been selected to communicate high-priority health issues and actions that can be taken to address them. 

The 12 Leading Health Indicator topics are:

  • Access to Health Services
  • Clinical Preventive Services
  • Environmental Quality
  • Injury and Violence
  • Maternal, Infant, and Child Health
  • Mental Health
  • Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity
  • Oral Health
  • Reproductive and Sexual Health
  • Social Determinants
  • Substance Abuse
  • Tobacco

For more information, visit: Leading Health Indicators

Mental health disparities are also key indicators that link social, economic and environmental disadvantage..  New mental health issues have emerged among some special populations, such as:

  • Veterans who have experienced physical and mental trauma
  • People in communities with large-scale psychological trauma caused by natural disasters
  • Older adults, as the understanding and treatment of dementia and mood disorders continues to improve

Mental disorders are among the most common causes of disability. The resulting disease burden of mental illness is among the highest of all diseases. In any given year, an estimated 18.1% (43.6 million) of U.S. adults ages 18 years or older suffered from any mental illness and 4.2% (9.8 million) suffered from a seriously debilitating mental illness.1 Neuropsychiatric disorders are the leading cause of disability in the United States, accounting for 18.7% of all years of life lost to disability and premature mortality. (US Burden of Disease Collaborators. The state of US health, 1990-2010: burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors. JAMA, 310(6): 591-608, 2013. Moreover, suicide is the 10th leading cause of death in the United States, accounting for the deaths of approximately 43,000 Americans in 2014. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIP). Web-based injury statistics query and reporting system (WISQARS) [Internet]. Atlanta: CDC; 2014. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/wisqars.)

Mental health and physical health are closely connected. Mental health plays a major role in people’s ability to maintain good physical health. (National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). NIMH strategic plan (revised 2008) [Internet]. Bethesda, MD: NIMH; 2008 [cited 2010 May 6]. Available from: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/about/strategic-planning-reports/index.shtml)

Mental illnesses, such as depression and anxiety, affect people’s ability to participate in health-promoting behaviors. In turn, problems with physical health, such as chronic diseases, can have a serious impact on mental health and decrease a person’s ability to participate in treatment and recovery. (Lando J, Marshall Williams S, Sturgis S, et al. A logic model for the integration of mental health into chronic disease prevention and health promotion. Prev Chronic Dis. 2006 April;3(2):A61.)

What is Sexism? Sexism is any attitude, action, or institutional structure which subordinates and subjugates a person or group because of gender (sex). The components of sexism are prejudice and discrimination.

CULTURE—THE FOUNDATION OF GROUP DIFFERENCES 

Cultural group selection is an explanatory model within cultural evolution of how cultural traits … But, in order for cultural group selection to occur, there must be cultural differences between groups, which can transmit

A newspaper story BY STEVE CRUMP, Staff Writer for The Charlotte Observer, notes the leader of a North Carolina based group associated with the Ku Klux Klan says, “He is glad that a woman died while taking part in a protest in Charlottesville, Va., over the weekend.

Heather Heyer was killed when James Allen Fields Jr. allegedly drove a car into a crowd of protesters at high speed, then fled the scene by backing up. Nineteen other people were injured.

Fields was among a group of white nationalists protesting the removal of a Confederate statue in a Charlottesville park. Heyer was among the large number of counter-protesters last Saturday.

Acceptance and Diversity is once again on the cutting board and major political advocacy watchdog organizations are being “called-out” for not proactively seeking creative solutions to America’s tumultuous race issues.

DRAWING APPROPRIATE CONCLUSIONS FROM DATA

ATTEMPTING TO PREVAIL WITHIN AN ECOLOGY OF MISREPRESENTATION; DISRESPECT; AND HATRED IN THE TULSA, OKLAHOMA COMMUNITY.  

What is Wage Retaliation? Any negative action your employer takes against you for filing a wage claim or otherwise exercising your rights under the FLSA.

Marvin Blades, a former Tulsa police officer and president of 100 Black Men of Tulsa, said the disproportionate number of blacks being killed has been occurring for years and that not enough is being done to combat it.

“When you start pairing the drug culture and you match that with the gang culture, then we’ve got a monster, and that’s what we’re dealing with now,” he said.

Disparities and Social Determinants

Race and ethnicity, gender, sexual identity, age, disability, socioeconomic status, and geographic location all contribute to an individual’s ability to achieve good health. It is important to recognize the impact that social determinants have on health outcomes of specific populations. Social determinants are often a strong predictor of health disparities. For example:

  • In 2007 to 2008, the Asian or Pacific Islander population had the highest rate of high school graduation among racial and ethnic groups, with 91.4% of students attending public schools graduating with a diploma 4 years after starting 9th grade compared to rates among non-Hispanic white (81.0%), American Indian or Alaska Native (64.2%), Hispanic (63.5%), and non-Hispanic black (61.5%) populations.
  • According to the National Assessment of Adult Literacy, African American, Hispanic, and American Indian or Alaska Native adults were significantly more likely to have below basic health literacy compared to their white and Asian or Pacific Islander counterparts. Hispanic adults had the lowest average health literacy score compared to adults in other racial and ethnic groups.10
  • In 2007, African Americans and Hispanics were more likely to be unemployed compared to their white counterparts. Further, adults with less than a high school education were 3 times more likely to be unemployed than those with a bachelor’s degree.11
  • Low socioeconomic status is associated with an increased risk for many diseases, including cardiovascular disease, arthritis, diabetes, chronic respiratory diseases, and cervical cancer as well as for frequent mental distress.11
  • Low-income minorities spend more time traveling to work and other daily destinations than do low-income whites because they have fewer private vehicles and use public transit and car pools more frequently.11

Blades finds the decades-old war on drugs, coupled with the erosion of the nuclear family and subsequent lack of positive male role models, to be factors contributing to the trend.

100 Black Men of Tulsa pairs black youths with successful black men to show them that failure and a life of crime don’t have to be their destiny.

“They see that ‘I don’t have to live the way that I’ve been living,’ and being exposed to that type of person and that lifestyle, a lot of times, is enough to get that young person to change the way they live,” he said.

Blades pointed to Tulsa’s churches as a force sizable enough to intervene in the lives of black youths and address similar social ills.

“Until that happens, I think we’re going to keep going down the same road,” he said.

Equal Pay/Compensation Discrimination

The Equal Pay Act requires that men and women in the same workplace be given equal pay for equal work. The jobs need not be identical, but they must be substantially equal. Job content (not job titles) determines whether jobs are substantially equal. All forms of pay are covered by this law, including salary, overtime pay, bonuses, stock options, profit sharing and bonus plans, life insurance, vacation and holiday pay, cleaning or gasoline allowances, hotel accommodations, reimbursement for travel expenses, and benefits. If there is an inequality in wages between men and women, employers may not reduce the wages of either sex to equalize their pay.

An individual alleging a violation of the EPA may go directly to court and is not required to file an EEOC charge beforehand. The time limit for filing an EPA charge with the EEOC and the time limit for going to court are the same: within two years of the alleged unlawful compensation practice or, in the case of a willful violation, within three years. The filing of an EEOC charge under the EPA does not extend the time frame for going to court.

Wage Retaliation

Title VII also makes it illegal to discriminate based on sex in pay and benefits. Therefore, someone who has an Equal Pay Act claim may also have a claim under Title VII.

According to the United States Equal Employment Commission, in 2017, Retaliation is the most frequently alleged basis of discrimination in the federal sector and the most common discrimination finding in federal sector cases. The EEO laws prohibit punishing job applicants or employees for asserting their rights to be free from employment discrimination including harassment.  Asserting these EEO rights is called “protected activity,” and it can take many forms.  For example, it is unlawful to retaliate against applicants or employees for:

  • filing or being a witness in an EEO charge, complaint, investigation, or lawsuit
  • communicating with a supervisor or manager about employment discrimination, including harassment
  • answering questions during an employer investigation of alleged harassment
  • refusing to follow orders that would result in discrimination
  • resisting sexual advances, or intervening to protect others
  • requesting accommodation of a disability or for a religious practice
  • asking managers or co-workers about salary information to uncover potentially discriminatory wages.

Participating in a complaint process is protected from retaliation under all circumstances. Other acts to oppose discrimination are protected as long as the employee was acting on a reasonable belief that something in the workplace may violate EEO laws, even if he or she did not use legal terminology to describe it.

Engaging in EEO activity, however, does not shield an employee from all discipline or discharge. Employers are free to discipline or terminate workers if motivated by non-retaliatory and non-discriminatory reasons that would otherwise result in such consequences.  However, an employer is not allowed to do anything in response to EEO activity that would discourage someone from resisting or complaining about future discrimination.

For example, depending on the facts, it could be retaliation if an employer acts because of the employee’s EEO activity to:

  • reprimand the employee or give a performance evaluation that is lower than it should be;
  • transfer the employee to a less desirable position;
  • engage in verbal or physical abuse;
  • threaten to make, or actually make reports to authorities (such as reporting immigration status or contacting the police);
  • increase scrutiny;
  • spread false rumors, treat a family member negatively (for example, cancel a contract with the person’s spouse); or
  • make the person’s work more difficult (for example, punishing an employee for an EEO complaint by purposefully changing his work schedule to conflict with family responsibilities).

For more information, Questions and Answers: Enforcement Guidance on Retaliation and Related Issueshttps://www.eeoc.gov/laws/guidance/retaliation-qa.cfm.

HOW A PEDESTRIAN AWARENESS CROSSWALK EDUCATION CURRICULUM CAN BRIDGE GAPS IN IN EQUITY-ECONOMIES OF EDUCATION, HEALTH, HOUSING AND RACIAL JUSTICE DISPARITIES WITHIN THE AFRICAN-AMERICAN COMMUNITIES IN TULSA, OK?

A crosswalk curriculum refers to a process used avail learning outcomes measureable throughout a series of performance standards.  At PACE TULSA AGS FOUNDATION, we prefer to categorize educational opportunities as objective when decisions lead:

  1. Local, state and national academic standards
  2. Local, state and national technical knowledge and skill standards
  3. Creative Solutions. Synergetic and Diffuse Reproduction.  Conventional Data Storage and Administration. Multi-Channel and Dynamic Delivery.

The crosswalk curriculum process helps learner’r recognize that injuries and violence are widespread in society. Both unintentional injuries and those caused by acts of violence both vehicle and non-motor vehicle are among the top 15 killers for Americans of all ages.1 

Many people accept injuries and violence as “accidents,” “acts of fate,” or as “part of life.” However, most events resulting in injury, disability, or death are predictable and preventable. The Injury and Violence Prevention objectives for 2020 represent a broad range of issues which, if adequately addressed, will improve the health of the Nation.2

Why Is Injury and Violence Prevention Important?

Injuries are the leading cause of death for Americans ages 1 to 44,1 and a leading cause of disability for all ages, regardless of sex, race/ethnicity, or socioeconomic status. More than 180,000 people die from injuries each year, and approximately 1 in 10 sustains a nonfatal injury serious enough to be treated in a hospital emergency department.1

Beyond their immediate health consequences, injuries and violence have a significant impact on the well-being of Americans by contributing to:

  • Premature death
  • Years of potential life lost
  • Disability and disability-adjusted life years lost
  • Poor mental health
  • High medical costs
  • Lost productivity3,4

The effects of injuries and violence extend beyond the injured person or victim of violence to family members, friends, coworkers, employers, and communities.

GETTING THE NUMBERS RIGHT

PACE TULSA AGS FOUNDATION CORE LEARNER METHODOLOGY

“To Develop Core Ideological Goals that Impact Lives in an Objective Way leading to Firm Commitments; Employable Decisions, and Creative Solutions for Our World.” –Terence Morris.

Just briefly, I want to offer you an example of the type of processes PACE AGS is involved with.

PACE TULSA AGS FOUNDATION, Using “inductive reasoning” methodology; seeks to could better understand public transportation events in real-time, leading to ‘up-to-the’ minute live broadcasts and simultaneously cast programming. 

The following Figure illustrates a type of “inductive reasoning” methodology based upon a typical once married couple, now divorced, in Tulsa, OK.

Inductive Reasoning Methodology

“In inductive inference, we go from the specific to the general. We make many observations, discern a pattern, make a generalization, and infer an explanation or a theory,” Wassertheil-Smoller told Live Science. “In science, there is a constant interplay between inductive inference (based on observations) and deductive inference (based on theory), until we get closer and closer to the ‘truth,’ which we can only approach but not ascertain with complete certainty.” 

In the process of induction, you begin with some data, and then determine what general conclusion(s) can logically be derived from those data. In other words, you determine what theory or theories could explain the data.

For example, you note that the probability of becoming schizophrenic is greatly increased if at least one parent is schizophrenic, and from that you conclude that schizophrenia may be inherited. That is certainly a reasonable hypothesis given the data. However, induction does not prove that the theory is correct. There are often alternative theories that are also supported by the data.

For example, the behavior of the schizophrenic parent may cause the child to be schizophrenic, not the genes. What is important in induction is that the theory does indeed offer a logical explanation of the data. To conclude that the parents have no effect on the schizophrenia of the children is not supportable given the data, and would not be a logical conclusion. 

MATERIAL EXPERIENCE METHODOLOGY AND UNDERSTANDING SKEPTICISM IN AFRICAN-AMERICANS?

We live in a very complex society.  Tulsa, Oklahoma is no exception to this fact.  The devastation homicide inflicts on black teens and young adults is a national crisis, yet it is all too often ignored outside of affected communities. To educate the public and policymakers about the reality of black homicide victimization. (The Violence Policy Center (VPC), March 2017, study was funded with the support of The Herb Block Foundation, the David Bohnett Foundation, and The Joyce Foundation.)

In this Figure 1. MATERIAL EXPERIENCE METHODOLOGY AND UNDERSTANDING SKEPTICISM IN AFRICAN-AMERICANS we are questioning the possibilities demonstrating the truth of beliefs about the external world as we see it by causal connections; future events, or metaphysical entities created of these accurate observations in perception. 

Figure 1. MATERIAL EXPERIENCE METHODOLOGY AND UNDERSTANDING SKEPTICISM IN AFRICAN-AMERICANS

1

However, the reality is we can’t say with absolute authority that this material experience within skepticism is truth (Lee K, 2000).  Although, we can say that the knowledge is the fruit of experience from this natural example.  These emotions are present in most environments.   

There are primary emotions. You are born with these emotions wired into your brain. That wiring causes your body to react in certain ways and for you to have certain urges when the emotion arises (BECK, 2015).  Here is a list of primary emotions:

Eight primary emotions (PE)  

  1. Anger: fury, outrage, wrath, irritability, hostility, resentment and violence.
  2. Sadness: grief, sorrow, gloom, melancholy, despair, loneliness, and depression.
  3. Fear: anxiety, apprehension, nervousness, dread, fright, and panic.
  4. Joy: enjoyment, happiness, relief, bliss, delight, pride, thrill, and ecstasy.
  5. Interest: acceptance, friendliness, trust, kindness, affection, love, devotion, compassion.
  6. Surprise: shock, astonishment, amazement, astound, and wonder.
  7. Disgust: contempt, disdain, scorn, aversion, distaste, and revulsion.
  8. Shame: guilt, embarrassment, chagrin, remorse, regret, and contrition. 

There are corresponding emotions in every stage of material experience in skepticism. Paul Ekman, in the 1960s, traveled around the U.S., Chile, Argentina, and Brazil. In each location, he showed people photos of different facial expressions and asked them to match the images with six different emotions: happiness, sadness, anger, surprise, fear, and disgust. “There was very high agreement,” Ekman says.  Once there, he showed locals the same photos he’d shown his other research subjects. He gave them a choice between three photos and asked them to pick images that matched various stories (such as “this man’s child has just died”). Adult participants chose the expected emotion between 28 and 100 percent of the time, depending which photos they were choosing among. (The 28 percent was a bit of an outlier: That was when people had to choose between fear, surprise, and sadness. The next lowest rate was 48 percent.) Emotions are biologically innate, universal to all humans, and displayed through facial expressions (Eckman, 2015).

The six emotions used in Ekman’s studies came to be known as the “basic emotions” all humans recognize and experience.  For example:  

  1. When we met. When we got married.  CE Sadness 48%
  2. The event that caused you to have 4 children. CE Joy
  3. Probably…since you had a Cesarean and Tubal Ligation before we were married. CE Anger
  4. Led to a Tubal Ligation Reversal, but not the Cesarean. CE Joy
  5. And then…YOU had a 5th Child (BLAKE). CE Joy
  6. Because NOW you DO have a Daughter. She LOOKS exactly like YOU! CE Fear
  7. HOW am I the FUTURE EVENT that CAUSED YOU to have a 6th CHILD? CE Joy 

Individual behaviors

The choices people make about individual behaviors, such as marriage, children, alcohol and drug use, or risk-taking, are often connected with factors in the social and physical environment and can increase injuries.5,6

PEDESTRIAN AWARENESS CROSSWALK EDUCATION CURRICULUM AND DESIGN

Since Tulsa, Oklahoma and the Federal Highway Administration have teamed with the

Department of Public Safety, there has to be more intensive focus opportunities for our community leaders to become involved with public safety. (NHTSA State Highway Safety Offices, FY 2014)

Physical environment

The physical environment, both in the home and community, can affect the rate of injuries related to falls, fires and burns, road traffic injuries, drowning, and violence.7,8,9

Access to Services

Access to health services, such as systems created for injury-related care, ranging from pre-hospital and acute care to rehabilitation, can reduce the consequences of injuries, including death and long-term disability.

Preliminary research summary – key points 

  1. Target Audiences
  2. Young Drivers
  3. Working-Age Adult Pedestrians

Key Issues (NHTSA State Highway Safety Offices, FY 2014):

  1. Drivers yielding to pedestrians in unmarked crosswalks
  2. Drivers yielding to pedestrians when making a right or left turn in a signalized crosswalk
  3. Pedestrians understanding the meaning of the “walk” and “don’t walk” signals
  4. Pedestrians understanding the need to be visible, i.e. Wear reflective materials 

Focus group recommendations for commercial production:

  1. Make sure the spots have emotional impact as opposed to humor
  2. Use visuals of children
  3. Learning environments & learning designs 

Desired Outcomes for the “Driver” Targeted Spots (NHTSA State Highway Safety Offices, FY 2014):

  1. More drivers stay alert when approaching intersections.
  2. More drivers yield to pedestrians in crosswalks.
  3. The spots teach people to appropriately identify pedestrian crossing signs.

The spots educate people about what the pedestrian crossing signs mean. 

Key Messages for the “Driver” Targeted Spots: 

  1. Stay alert at ALL intersections
  2. Yield to pedestrians in the crosswalk 

Desired Outcomes for the “Pedestrian” Targeted Spots: 

  1. More pedestrians use the crosswalks and watch for turning vehicles
  2. More pedestrians are educated about the meanings of pedestrian signals
  3. More pedestrians are educated about the need for improving their visibility to drivers at night. 

Key Messages for the “Pedestrian” Targeted Spots: 

  1. Follow the pedestrian signals
  2. Make yourself visible at night with reflective materials and a flashlight 3. Use crosswalks and look for vehicles while crossing 

An online LMS environment allows the student or listener to follow along with the presenter at his or her own pace (Learning, 2013) something of value is actually practiced; tested and gained from these targeted spot outcome implementation exercises.

The online interaction within and outside of the modules often is less intimidating because the presenter is only on the screen and not in person.  These private spaces are the foundation based storage areas that have become known as “Targeted Spots.”

Social Environment

The social environment has a notable influence on the risk for injury and violence through:

  • Individual social experiences (for example, social norms, education, victimization history)
  • Social relationships (for example, parental monitoring and supervision of youth, peer group associations, family interactions)
  • Community environment (for example, cohesion in schools, neighborhoods, and communities)
  • Societal-level factors (for example, cultural beliefs, attitudes, incentives and disincentives, laws and regulations)10

Interventions that address these social and physical factors have the potential to prevent unintentional injuries and violence. Efforts to prevent unintentional injury may focus on:

  • Modifications of the environment
  • Improvements in product safety
  • Legislation and enforcement
  • Education and behavior change
  • Technology and engineering11

Efforts to prevent violence may focus on:

  • Changing social norms about the acceptability of violence and the willingness to intervene 
  • Improving skills and competencies (for example, communication, impulse control, parenting, conflict resolution, coping)
  • Fostering safe, stable, nurturing relationships and environments for children and families
  • Changing policies to address the social and economic conditions that often give rise to violence

CREATING ACTIONABLE INSIGHTS

WHO DESERVES A SAFE-SPACE?

Targeted Spots/Safe-Space is “A place where anyone can relax and be fully self-expressed, without fear of being made to feel uncomfortable, unwelcome or challenged on account of biological sex, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, cultural background, wage desensitization, employment engagement or spiritual identification.

CAN AFRICAN-AMERICANS HAVE A SAFE-SPACE DISADVANTAGE BUSINESS ENTERPRISE, WHILE SHARING AN ECOLOGY WITH HATE BASED ORGANIZATIONS AND RASH RAGE DOMESTIC ENEMY GROUPS? 

Black Oklahoman’s make up only 7.4 percent Oklahoma’s state’s population. 

African-American male is best represented as a civic when he’s a card carrying voter; a licensed citizen; a community leader; and scholar.  

“The opportunities of mercy that abounds us are created within the ‘spirit of benevolence.”  –Terence Morris, is the author and founder of PACE TULSA FOUNDATION, August 2017.

PUBLIC SAFETY POLICY CONTROLLABLE VERSUS UNCONTROLLABLE COSTS

Emerging Issues in Injury and Violence Prevention

While not included as objectives in Healthy People 2020, there are several emerging issues in injury and violence prevention that need further research, analysis, and monitoring.

For unintentional injuries, there is a need to better understand the trends, causes, and prevention strategies for: 

  • Prescription drug overdose deaths
  • Motor vehicle crashes due to distracted driving
  • Traumatic Brain Injury

In the area of violence, there is a need to better understand the trends, causes, and prevention strategies related to:

  • Bullying, dating violence, and sexual violence among youth
  • Elder maltreatment, particularly with respect to quantifying and understanding the problem
  • Overlapping causes of violence and the strategies that can prevent multiple forms of violence

DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS ENTERPRISE(S) AND THE FINANCIAL EFFECTS OF SAFE SPACES WEB

CAN THESE UNDER-REPRESENTED AFRICAN-AMERICAN POPULATIONS ACHIEVE A DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS ENTERPRISE FOR A FOR PROFIT SMALL BUSINESS?

A Disadvantaged Business Enterprise or DBE/ACDBE is a for-profit small business concern that is at least 51 percent owned by one or more individuals who are both socially and economically disadvantaged. In the case of a corporation, 51 percent of the stock is owned by one or more such individuals; and whose management and daily business operations are controlled by one or more of the socially and economically disadvantaged individuals who own it.

Eligibility requirements for certification as a DBE/ACDBE are stated in 49 CFR, Part 26. The following six requirements must be proved by a DBE/ACDBE applicant but does not cover all the requirements found in 49 CFR, Part 26.

  1. Social and Economic Disadvantage: A disadvantaged owner must be a U.S. Citizen (or resident alien) and meet the federal definition of socially and economically disadvantaged as defined in 49 CFR Part 26.67. Presumptive groups include women, Black Americans, Hispanic Americans, Native Americans, Asian-Pacific Americans, Subcontinent Asian-Americans, or other minorities found to be disadvantaged by the regulations or any individual found to be socially and economically disadvantaged on a case-by-case basis.
  2. Personal Net Worth: Only disadvantaged persons having a personal net worth (PNW) of less than $1.32 million can be considered as a potential qualified DBE/ACDBE. Items excluded from a person’s net worth calculation include an individual’s ownership interest in the applicant firm, and his or her primary residence.
  3. Business Size Standard: A firm (including affiliates) must be a small business as defined by the Small Business Administration (SBA). It must not have annual gross receipts over $23.98 million in the previous three fiscal years. Depending on the type of work the business performs, other size standards may apply.
  4. Ownership: Must be a for-profit small business concern where socially and economically disadvantaged individuals own at least 51% interest and control management AND daily business operations.
  5. Independence: The business must not be affiliated to another firm in such a way as to compromise its independence and control. These include, but not limited to, such areas as personnel, facilities, equipment, financial and/or bonding support, and other resources.
  6. Management and Control: The socially and economically DBE/ACDBE owner (s) must possess the power to direct or cause the direction to the management and policies of the firm and to make day-to-day decisions, as well as long-term decisions on matters of management, policy and operations.

BEHAVIOR COSTING AND AFRICAN-AMERICAN COMMUNITY ATTITUDES

MEASURES, DATA AND CAUSAL MODELS:

ARE AFRICAN-AMERICAN LEADERS IN TULSA, OKLAHOMA OUT OF LINE FOR PROPOSING A “ONE-VOICE IN TRANSPORTATION TREATISE WITH WHITE AMERICA? 

ONE VOICE IN TRANSPORTATION TREATISE

  1. “I respect you and together we will strengthen confidence within performance of our commitments to job specific protocols each and every day both at work and in our communities.
  2. “I respect you and expect you to respect me.  Together we work under the conditions and rules of personal respect. 
  3. “I respect you and at this time together we will be more productive for ourselves; our communities and our world’s we both enjoy.”
  4. “I respect you and expect us to peacefully assure that the Citizens of Tulsa and our one world community have ‘equitable rights to personal expression.’”
  5. “I respect you and together we should accept all human obligations to ‘self-constitution’ in a ‘sound economy.’”
  6. “I respect you and together we ‘practice self-government in a ‘spirit of mercy’ ending in ‘universal benevolence.’”

“Armed with his knowledge including a rich history of volunteer service; patience and respect within’ kindness, African-American people extend Goodwill throughout humanity.”  –Terence Morris, is the author and founder of PACE TULSA FOUNDATION 2017.

Questions to Ask and Answer:

  • What is the vision and mission of the coalition?
  • Why do I want to bring people together?
  • Who should be represented?
  • Who are the potential partners (organizations and businesses) in my community?

Start by mobilizing key individuals and organizations into a coalition. 

Look for partners who have a stake in creating healthy communities and who will contribute to the process. Aim for broad representation.

Next, identify roles for partners and assign responsibilities.

This will help to keep partners engaged in the coalition. For example, partners can:

  • Facilitate community input through meetings, events, or advisory groups.
  • Develop and present education and training programs.
  • Lead fundraising and policy initiatives.
  • Provide technical assistance in planning or evaluation.

BUILDING A SUCCESSFUL LEADERSHIP

Leadership Qualities

All good “Leaders” share these qualities:

  1. Ability to improve current professional skills.
  2. Ability to gain insight into their behaviors which affect personal professional growth.
  3. Ability to increase their business in every way.

“If successful…these ‘leaders’ can unlock their potential to the benefit of their organizations; their communities and the world society.”

All excellent “Leaders” share these qualities

  1. Ability to notice.
  2. Ability to study.
  3. Ability to understand conscious or unconscious drivers of behavior.

LEADERLESS-GROUP DISCUSSIONS  

WHAT IS THE LGD? Leaderless Group Discussion (LGD)  Industry and government continue moving toward a team approach, an approach that requires cooperative problem solving, effective communication skills, and the ability to influence others by presenting ideas in an open, approachable, and non-threatening manner.

  • Demonstrate self-confidence that inspires others
  • Are persuasive without being overbearing
  • Openly encourage the ideas of others
  • Are assertive at appropriate times
  • Effectively mediate opposing points of view

Assessment Centers

  • Group Conflict: Dealing with different points of view
  • Group Organization: How to proceed in light of time limits
  • Problem Analysis: Dealing with poor analyses by others
  • Decision Making: Proceeding logically and guiding others to do so
  • Participation: Sensitivity to contributions of others
  • Keeping on Track: How to keep the discussion productive

MEASURES OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE

 Core Behaviors

Interpreter stewards’ deliver their body of knowledge by understanding coordinated logic within the science of intellectual thought.  To accurately establish premise to these core behaviors in thought, we look to the English philosopher and statesman Sir Francis Bacon.  Sir Francis Bacon’s, Advancement of Learning (Bacon, 1857-1870), is essentially a treatise on modern scientific thought.  Bacon emphasizes:

  1. People are the servants and interpreters of nature.
  2. Truth is not derived from authority, but is only a variable indicator of fact.
  3. Knowledge is the fruit of experience.

PACE TULSA AGS seeks to present a forum to harness modern foundations of critical scientific thinking into intellectual conversations about pedestrian awareness crosswalk education topics.

 Ampliative inference

A term used mainly in logic, meaning “extending” or “adding to that which is already known”.

In Sir Francis Bacon’s “ampliative inference” is a: 

  1. Inductive reasoning technique.
  2. Logic improving scientific hypothesis. (Corroborative methodology)

The Scottish historian and philosopher, David Hume, in “A Treatise of Human Nature,” describes the development of material experience within skepticism as a philosophical doctrine that denies the possibility of attaining knowledge of reality apart from human perception. 

Skepticism is in fact based on views about:

  1. Scope (expansive pre-dispositions of the human mind)
  2. Validity of human knowledge (limited pre-suppositions based on the workings of the brain)

The way that Pedestrian Awareness Crosswalk Education is a curriculum intersecting public transportation policy and public safety in the United States directly correlates with the body of information created of topical hypotheses designated after thorough experimentation within the science of intellectual thought derived from understanding specificity surveys.

Some key indicators that signal successful implementation of training and education programs are as they relate to pedestrian awareness crosswalk education are called core behavior and measurement outcome performance skills. 

According to the Oklahoma Highway Safety Office (Office, 2017), “the vast majority of motor vehicle fatalities in Oklahoma are the result of driver behavior.  Impaired driving, speeding, distracted driving, and not wearing a seatbelt are behaviors that can be changed through awareness, education and strict enforcement of traffic safety laws.” 

Nationwide, more than 6,300 black people were killed in 2011, according to the study.

RACIAL INJUSTICE

“Interethnic group and intraethnic group racism are significant stressors for many African-Americans. As such, intergroup and intragroup racism may play a role in the high rates of morbidity and mortality in this population.” (Clark, Anderson, Clark, and Williams, 1999).

Racial prejudice and racism have most been perpetrated in the U.S. by people of European descent against various other groups, such as African-Americans or Latinos. However, because of the shifts in our communities’ demographics in some parts of the U.S., racial prejudice and racism also lead to tensions between people of non-European descent, such as between African Americans and Asian Americans. As the U.S. becomes more diverse and the world’s residents more mobile, we must be prepared to act in order to reduce the potential for hostility due to differences in our physical traits and other characteristics.

No matter what culture or part of the world you’re from, you’ve seen the results of racial prejudice and racism, even if you’ve never directly felt it aimed at you. The results of racial prejudice and racism can be seen everywhere: stereotypes, violence, underfunded schools, unemployment, police brutality, shabby housing, a disproportionate number of African-American men on death row, etc. Racial prejudice and racism can be found in many different areas of society: in the media, in service organizations, in the workplace, in neighborhoods, at school, in local government, on your block — in virtually every area of daily life.

ABOUT THE COMMUNITY TOOL BOX

The Community Tool Box is a free, online resource for those working to build healthier communities and bring about social change. It offers thousands of pages of tips and tools for taking action in communities.

Want to learn about community assessment, planning, intervention, evaluation, advocacy, and other aspects of community practice? Then help yourself to over 300 educational modules and other free tools.

Under continuous development since 1994, the Community Tool Box is widely used in teaching, training, and technical support. Currently available in English, Spanish, and Arabic and with millions of user sessions annually, it has reached those working in over 230 countries around the world.

THE LIKELIHOOD OF A BLACK PERSON’S BECOMING THE VICTIM OF A HOMICIDE IS NEARLY FOUR TIMES THAT OF THE HOMICIDE RATE FOR ALL RACES COMBINED.

In the study, the Violence Policy Center, a national nonprofit organization based in Washington, D.C., used FBI data from the most recent year available, 2011, to calculate the homicide rate of black victims per 100,000 residents for each state. Oklahoma’s rate was 25.51 black victims per 100,000 Oklahoman’s.

The Oklahoma State Bureau of Investigation has more recent data showing that 34.7 percent of Oklahoma homicide victims in 2012 were black.

In Tulsa, 46.9 percent of victims in 2013 and 56.5 percent of victims in 2012 were black.

In 2011 Tulsa police investigated 54 homicides, in more than half of which — 28 — the victims were black.

WHY THE COMMUNITY TOOL BOX?

The vision behind the Community Tool Box is that people — locally and globally — are better prepared to work together to change conditions that affect their lives. Our mission is to promote community health and development by connecting people, ideas, and resources.

With the belief that people can change their communities for the better, and informed by disciplines including applied behavior analysis, public health, and community psychology, partners at the University of Kansas and collaborating organizations developed the Community Tool Box as a public service.

Our fervent hope is that these tools can make it easier for people to take action to assure healthier and more just communities throughout the world.

Learn more about the Community Tool Box as team member Christina Holt delivers an address to St. Louis community members.  Suggested Steps to take in Tulsa, OK to help.

  • Learn about your community (e.g., what groups live there, what has been the nature of their relationships, what incidents have occurred in the past due to racial prejudice or racism).
  • Document activities in your community that reflect racial prejudice or racism. Documentation will show proof that there is a problem, especially when the community is in denial that racism exists.
  • Invite a group of people to participate in the planning process, if appropriate (e.g., the advocates who always take action, the representatives of each group, the people who are affected).
  • Understand the depth of the problem (e.g., it’s a new problem because of a group of newcomers, or it’s an old problem that won’t go away).
  • Identify and understand the kinds of policies that may need to be challenged.
  • Determine the short-term and long-term, if any, goals of your strategy (e.g., change people’s attitudes and/or change an institutional policy).
  • Consider how far the selected strategy(ies) will take your community (e.g., as far as initial awareness, or all the way to electing officials from the under-represented groups).
  • Consider what existing resources you can build on and what additional assistance or resources you may need (e.g., anti-racism training, funding, or buy-in from the mayor).
  • Consider how much time you have (e.g., are you responding to a crisis that needs to be dealt with immediately, to the need to curb a festering issue, or to the desire to promote the value of diversity).
  • Review your strategies to ensure that they deal with racial prejudice and racism at the individual, community, and institutional levels, and they link dialogue to action.

Note: Appropriate structures and processes need to be set up in the community to implement these activities

CONTENT PROVIDERS LIKE PACE TULSA AGS FOUNDATION INVOLVE PEOPLE SOURCE TASKS HELPING TO BRIDGE THE UNDERSTANDING AND ACCEPTANCE GAPS IN OUR SOCIETY.

  1. Identify gaps and provide recommendations to rectify between what is said and what is actually practiced in driver safety and other pedestrian awareness safety education curriculums.
  2. Highlight the differences between Pedestrians and Driver’s, realizing that the larger the gap in this designation, the greater the problem.
  3. Provide an opportunity to connect and interact with Pedestrians and Drivers almost simultaneously. Identify gaps between Public Transportation Policy perceptions; goals; and actual policy initiatives within the Pedestrian Awareness Crosswalk Education Advocacy community.
  4. Actively service internal benchmarks. Following measurable means for achieving pedestrian campaigns in communities. Realize trends and progress.
  5. Determine where current Public Transportation Policies work and where they fall short.
  6. Be an operational tool because responsive to Pedestrian’s actions.
  7. Pedestrians must feel everyone in the community is on board with improving Public
  8. Transportation Policy for their Personal Security and Safety. Community leader’s care and listen to what they have to say.
  9. Encourages citizen feedback openly and in public forums. Gauging leader roles as a part of the Public Safety community.
  10. Encourage open communication among various organizational layers involving all key players. Choose realistic strategies. Establish a shared vision. Build ownership at all levels. Institutionalize change.  And Publicize successes

PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION POLICY

AFRICAN-AMERICAN SPRAWL

The Oklahoma Department of Transportation Policy is used to facilitate and incorporate, safe convenient walking and bicycling facilities into transportation projects.  Every transportation agency, including ODOT, has the responsibility to improve conditions and opportunities for walking and bicycling and to integrate walking and bicycling into their transportation systems.  Because of the numerous individual and community benefits that walking and bicycling provide—including health, safety, environmental, transportation, and quality of life—transportation agencies are encouraged to go beyond minimum standards to provide safe and convenient facilities for these modes (United States. Federal Highway Administration, 2010.)

The following article originally appeared on the site of the Environmental Justice Resource Center at Clark Atlanta University.  In the United States, all communities do not receive the same benefits from transportation advancements and investments. “Suburban sprawl is in part driven by race and class dynamics. Transportation spending has always been about opportunity, fairness, and equity,” according to Clark Atlanta University professor Robert D. Bullard.

The modern civil rights movement has its roots in transportation. For more than a century, African Americans and other people of color have struggled to dismantle transportation apartheid policies that use tax dollars to promote economic isolation and social exclusion. The decision to build highways, expressways, and beltways has far-reaching effects on land use, energy policy, and the environment. Similarly, the decisions by county commissioners to limit and even exclude public transit to job-rich suburban economic activity centers have serious mobility implications for central city residents.

Public transportation provides people with mobility and access to employment, community resources, medical care, and recreational opportunities in communities across America. It benefits those who choose to ride, as well as, those who have no other transportation.  Over 90 percent of public assistance recipients do not own a car; and must rely on public transportation. Public Transit provides a basic mobility service to these persons and to all others without access to a car.

Inadequate public transit services in many of the nation’s metropolitan regions, which have high proportions of “captive” transit dependents, has exacerbated social, economic, and racial isolation and aided in institutionalizing transportation apartheid. Today, no other group is more physically isolated from jobs than African Americans.- Environmental Justice Resource Center at Clark Atlanta University, 2002

The incorporation of public transportation options and considerations into broader economic land use planning can also help a community expand business opportunities, reduce sprawl, and create a sense of community through transit-oriented development. By creating a locus for public activities, such development contributes to a sense of community and can enhance neighborhood safety and security.

For these reasons, areas with good public transit systems are economically thriving communities and offer location advantages to businesses and individuals choosing to work or live in them. And in times of emergency, public transportation is critical to safe and efficient evacuation, providing the resiliency America needs in its emergency transportation network. 

EQUITY AND INCLUSION IS CENTRAL TO FEDERAL TRANSPORTATION POLICY

Equity-based transportation policies focus on four core principles:

1. Increasing access to economic opportunity and employment for all;

2. Improving access to jobs and fairly distributing the work of building and fi xing critical infrastructure in local communities;

3. Creating healthier, more sustainable communities by supporting safe, smart,
affordable alternatives to highway metropolitan sprawl; and

4. Including local residents in all stages of the decision-making process.

Public transportation also helps to reduce road congestion and travel times, air pollution, and energy and oil consumption, all of which benefit both riders and non-riders alike. (Federal Highway Administration, 2010)

Who Decides How Transportation Funding Will Be Used?

An equitable transportation system must ensure that the decision-making processes used by Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) and state Departments of Transportation (DOTs) are representative, responsive and accountable, and that they select projects with a goal of promoting equitable outcomes at the metro level. This is often not the case under the current system. Few MPOs or state DOTs are representative of the populations they serve. A 2008 survey of the 50 largest MPOs showed that the voting members of the MPO boards were 88 percent white, with about seven percent African American, three percent Hispanic, and one percent Asian/Pacifi c Islander. Thirteen of the 50 MPOs in the study had all white members and only 10 had a membership of more than 20 percent non-white members.3 Generally, the MPOs are less representative of the population in 2008 than they were in a similar survey completed in 2000.

for more information on this topic turn to the following resource…

http://equitycaucus.org/sites/default/files/AllAboard_final_web.pdf

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To help PACE TULSA AGS FOUNDATION continue these types of informative projects feel free to make contributions at

Giving BACK...TO TULSA
Giving Back to your community can be one of the most rewarding experiences of your life!

 

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UA-92208558-1

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COPYRIGHT | 2017 © PACE AGS FOUNDATION. “Pedestrian Awareness Crosswalk Education is an online think-tank intersecting awareness of public transportation policy in the United States.”

 

 

 

©2013paess.org COPYRIGHT| PACE TULSA AGS FOUNDATION

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